M. Pol. Science, University Helsinki, 1956. License Pol. Science, University Helsinki, 1959. Doctor Pol. Science, University Helsinki, 1961.
Diplomatic officer Finnish Foreign Service, Helsinki, New York City, Cairo, Moscow and Geneva, 1958-1967, 71-74. Professor international politics University Tampere, Finland, 1967-1971. Deputy director Finnish Minister Foreign Affairs, Helsinki, 1974-1977, director political affairs, 1977-1981, under secretary state, 1983-1988.
Permanent representative Finnish mission United Nations, New York City, 1988-1991. Ambassador to France Paris, 1993-1996. Faculty member Geneva Center Security Policy, 1997-1998.
Visiting professor National Defense College, since 1998.
Editorial Board 1976-1979. Editorial Board of Ulkopolitiikka-Utrikespolitik 87. Board of Trustees UNITAR 1984-1988.
Of Board of Governors IAEA 1985-1987.
Married Mirja Liisa Siirala, August 19, 1960. Children: Nina, Martin.