Cayre received a diploma in veterinary from the National Veterinary School of Lyon in 1989. Six years later she earned her doctorate in neurobiology from the French National Center for Scientific Research.
Cayre began her career as a researcher at the Laboratory of Neurobiology of the French National Center for Scientific Research in 1997 and held the position for three years. She then was promoted to a senior researcher there. Since 2004 she has been a senior researcher at Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille. She studies the role of subventricular zone-derived neural progenitors in myelin repair.
Cayre is a member of the American Society for Neurosciences and Federation of European Neuroscience Societies.
On September 15, 1990 Myriam Cayre married Myriam Levi. They have two children.