Bachelor summa cum laude, Hobart College, 1957. Master Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 1959. Doctor of Philosophy, Princeton University, 1964.
United States foreign service officer Department of State, Washington, 1960—1992, senior consultant foreign affairs, since 1993. Special ambassador to the Vatican, 1978. Charge United States Mission to The Vatican, 1975—1980.
Acting deputy assistant secretary for Human Rights, 1980—1982. Director Regional Political Affairs for Latin American, 1985—1992. Adjunct professor diplomacy George Mason University, 1992—1993.
Diplomatic assignments in Vatican, Venezuela, Dominican Republic and Iceland, 1961—1967. Diplomat in residence School Advanced International Studies Johns Hopkins University, 1972—1973.
Member American Foreign Service Association, Phi Beta Kappa.