Student, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1943. Bachelor of Science, University New Hampshire, 1945. Master of Arts, Boston University, 1947.
Doctor of Philosophy, Boston University, 1953.
Instructor, U. Bridgeport, Connecticut, 1947-1948; master, Lawrence Academy, Groton, Massachusetts, 1948-1951; research assistant to, Benjamin P. Thomas, Washington, 1953-1954; member of faculty, Boston University, since 1955; associate professor of history, Boston University, 1960-1966; professor, Boston University, 1966-1984; professor emeritus, Boston University, since 1984. Visiting professor University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1962-1963.
With Army of the United States, 1943-1946. Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society of America Historians. Member Organization American Historians (life member), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Lincoln Group of Boston (president 1969-1974), Phi Beta Kappa.