Bachelor of Arts, Fisk U., 1938; Juris Doctor, Harvard University, 1941; postgraduate, New School Social Research, New York City, 1947-1948; postgraduate, Sorbonne, Paris, 1949-1950.
Deputy assistant district attorney New York, New York City, 1946-1947. Claims attorney United States Armed Force Europe, 1951-1955. Practice law New York City, 1956-1957.
Associate professor law Texas Southern University, 1958-1960. Assistant general counsel United States Information Agency, Washington, 1961-1964. Chief counsel United States Community Relations Service, 1965-1968.
Avalon professor humanities Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, 1968-1970. Visiting professor Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, 1970-1971. Professor emeritus Boston University, 1971-1981.
Visiting professor third world literature Duke University, 1972-1973, 73-74, Rutgers University, 1981.
Board of directors Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, 1969-1976, Boston Partners in Education, 1985-1991, Massachusetts History Commission, 1989-1995, Blockside Inc., Museum Afro-American History. Served with Army of the United States, 1942-1946. Member New York Bar Association, New England Poetry Club.
1 daughter, Marie-Christine Catherine.