Bachelor with 1st class honors, University Malaya, 1971. Diploma in education, University Malaya, 1973. Master of Arts in English Literature, University Malaya, 1976.
Doctor of Philosophy in English Literature, University California, Berkeley, 1986.
Tutor, English University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 1971-1972. High school teacher La Salle Secondary School, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1974-1975. Associate professor English literature University Sains Malaysia, Penang, since 1975.
Judge National Literature Awards, Malaysia, 1988-1994. Member Council on Southeast Asian Literature, since 1996. Consultant World Literature Encyclopedia project, Malaysia, since 1996.
Executive member Aliran, Malaysia, since 1996. Member Malaysia Association Comparative Literature, Multi-Ethnic Lits. of America and the Pacific, Malaysian Association Commonwealth Language and Literature Studies.