Bachelor of Arts Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania, 1959. Doctor of Philosophy Harvard University, 1963.
Teaching Fellow, Instructor Economics, Assistant Professor, Harvard University, 1961-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1968. Special Economics Assistant, Assistant Attorney General United States Department Justice, 1965-1966. Association Professor of Economics,
Graduate School Business, Stanford University,
Fulbright Visiting Lector, University Tokyo, 1972. Visiting Association Professor of Economics, Harvard University, 1973-1974. Professor of Economics, University Western Ontario, 1974-1975.
Director, Bureau Economics, Federal Trade Commission, 1978-1980. Professor of Economics, University California Santa Barbara, California, since 1975. Editorial Boards, Review of Economics and Statistics, Antitrust Bulletin, Reprints Antitrust Law and Economics, Journal of Industrial Economics, Decision and Managerial Economics, International J. Advertising.
Writing and teaching in the field of industrial organisation, with primary attention paid to the determinants and effects of restrictions on competition. This has led to studies of the economy generally as well as of specific industries, and also of the roles of advertising and research expenditures for various dimensions of efficiency. Particular attention has been paid to the economics of the pharmaceutical industry, and to the effective conduct of antitrust policy.