Wilk-Wozniak received a Master of Science degree from the Jagiellonian University in 1992. Seven years later, she was given a Doctor of Philosophy degree from Adam Mickiewicz University.
Wilk-Wozniak began her career as an assistant at the Institute of Freshwater Biology at Polish Academy of Sciences in 1992 and held it for seven years. In 2000, she became adjunct professor at the Institute of Nature Conservation at Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow. Since 2004, Wilk-Wozniak has been a senior researcher at the same institute.
On March 23, 1991 Elzbieta Wilk-Wozniak married Zbigniew Wozniak. They have a son.