(This volume of the series The Plant Viruses is devoted to...)
This volume of the series The Plant Viruses is devoted to viruses with rod-shaped particles belonging to the following four groups: the toba moviruses (named after tobacco mosaic virus), the tobraviruses (after to bacco rattle), the hordeiviruses (after the latin hordeum in honor of the type member barley stripe mosaic virus), and the not yet officially rec ognized furoviruses (fungus-transmitted rod-shaped viruses, Shirako and Brakke, 1984). At present these clusters of plant viruses are called groups instead of genera or families as is customary in other areas of virology. This pe culiarity of plant viral taxonomy (Matthews, 1982) is due to the fact that the current Plant Virus Subcommittee of the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses is deeply split on what to call the categories or ranks used in virus classification. Some plant virologists believe that the species concept cannot be applied to viruses because this concept, according to them, necessarily involves sexual reproduction and genetic isolation (Milne, 1984; Murant, 1985). This belief no doubt stems from the fact that these authors restrict the use of the term species to biological species. According to them, a collection of similar viral isolates and strains does constitute an individ ual virus, i. e. , it is a taxonomy entity separate from other individual viruses.
Fraenkel-Conrat received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Breslau in 1933. Due to the rise of Nazism in Germany he left for Scotland in 1933 and finished his Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Edinburgh in 1936.
Fraenkel-Conrat started his career as an assistant Rockefeller Institute in 1936. The next year he became a research associate at Butanan Institute, Sao Paulo, and since 1938, he had been working at the University California at Berkeley. From 1942 to 1950 he worked as an associate chemist at We. Regional Research Laboratory of United States Department of Agriculture.
Heinz rejoined the University of California at Berkeley in 1952 where he remained until his death. He was also a visiting professor at Postgraduate Medical College University in London since 1986 and a contributor to journals and periodicals, including Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Scientific American, and Bioessays, Comprehensive Virology.
(This volume of the series The Plant Viruses is devoted to...)1986
(Focuses on the nature and history of viruses and viral di...)1994
Member National Academy of Sciences, International Society Toxinology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Surgeons, American Society Biological Chemistry.
Fraenkel-Conrat married Jane Operman, whom he divorced, on July 15, 1938. Then he married Beatrice Brandon Singer on June 1, 1964. He had 2 children: Richard and Charles.